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Economic Category: Distribution: Income, Wealth, Other

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Distribution: Income, Wealth, Other - Article

1. Distribution of Income

The distribution of income is central to one of the most enduring issues in political economics. This article describes how income is distributed now, and how-and why-the distribution has changed over the decades in order to answer the question of whether the government should redistibute more or less income. [Details...]

2. History of Property Taxes in the United States

The growth of the property tax in America was closely related to economic and political conditions on the frontier. This article describes how in pre-commercial agricultural areas the property tax was a feasible source of local government revenue and equal taxation of wealth was consistent with the prevailing equalitarian ideology. [Details...]

3. Labor Unions in the United States

This article explores the nature and development of labor unions in the United States. It reviews the growth and recent decline of the American labor movement and makes comparisons with the experience of foreign labor unions to clarify particular aspects of the history of labor unions in the United States. [Details...]

4. Redistribution of Income

This article discusses whether the actual benefits to the poor may be much smaller than people assume, even though the government institutes policies which redistribute enormous amounts of money each year. [Details...]

5. Smoot-Hawley Tariff

The Smoot-Hawley Tariff of 1930 was the subject of enormous controversy at the time of its passage and remains one of the most notorious pieces of legislation in the history of the United States. This article explains why it caused controversy and is still referred to today. [Details...]

6. The Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922

This article begins with reference to the Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, then goes on to discusse the Fordney-McCumber Tariff. The article then compares Fordney-McCumber, Payne-Aldrich, and Underwood-Simmons, and discusses the Fordney-McCumber Tariff with respect to American agriculture and International retaliation. [Details...]

7. The Marshall Plan, 1948-1951

The Marshall Plan was aimed at help the economies of Western Europe between 1948 and 1951. This article focuses on the competing interpretations of the effects of the Marshall Plan. [Details...]

8. The National Recovery Administration

This article outlines the history of the National Recovery Administration, one of the most important and controversial agencies in Roosevelt's New Deal. It discusses the agency's "codes of fair competition" under which antitrust law exemptions could be granted in exchange for adoption of minimum wages, problems some industries encountered in their subsequent attempts to fix prices under the codes, and the macroeconomic effects of the program. [Details...]

9. The Protestant Ethic Thesis

This article summarizes German sociologist Max Weber's formulation, considers criticisms of Weber's thesis, and reviews evidence of linkages between cultural values and economic growth. [Details...]

10. Thomas Robert Malthus

This article gives a brief decsription on Malthus's prediction that the population would be unable to feed itself in a certain matter of time. [Details...]

Distribution: Income, Wealth, Other - Interactive Tutorial

11. Credibility of Economic Policy

This Learning Module will introduce you to the issue of economic policy credibility. Using a simple formal model, you can see how differences in public beliefs can cause the same policy action to produce different outcomes. For an analytical framework to evaluate public beliefs, examine six concepts relating to the credibility of economic policy. For real world experience, there are case summaries for you to consider. [Details...]

12. Credibility of Economic Policy

This Learning Module will introduce you to the issue of economic policy credibility. Using a simple formal model, you can see how differences in public beliefs can cause the same policy action to produce different outcomes. For an analytical framework to evaluate public beliefs, examine six concepts relating to the credibility of economic policy. For real world experience, there are case summaries for you to consider. [Details...]

Distribution: Income, Wealth, Other - Web Site

13. Economic Growth in East Asia

Over the past three decades remarkable economic growth has occured in East Asia. This policy forum will examine key features of economic growth in eight East Asian economies: Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan/China, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. This forum will also focus on some central ideas of growth theory. Tools and concepts from growth theory provide important insights into the East Asian experience. This experience, in turn, also provides new insights into the process of economic growth. One goal of this forum is to confront growth theory with an important example of economic growth, and in doing so promote understanding of both growth theory and an outstanding growth experience. [Details...]

14. Enterprise Restructuring in the former Soviet Union

Citizens of the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have recognized the potential benefits, observed in many different cultures and societies around the world, of private, market-driven enterprises. For more than half a century enterprises in the FSU have been subject to comprehensive state ownership and central planning. Prices and financing were typically of little concern to enterprise management, while workers did not have to worry about job security and received a wide range of social benefits through enterprises. While moving toward private, market-driven enterprises offers great promise for an improved standard of living for the average person, such a transition represents a fundamental social, psychological, and economic challenge. [Details...]

15. Enterprise Restructuring in the former Soviet Union

Citizens of the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have recognized the potential benefits, observed in many different cultures and societies around the world, of private, market-driven enterprises. For more than half a century enterprises in the FSU have been subject to comprehensive state ownership and central planning. Prices and financing were typically of little concern to enterprise management, while workers did not have to worry about job security and received a wide range of social benefits through enterprises. While moving toward private, market-driven enterprises offers great promise for an improved standard of living for the average person, such a transition represents a fundamental social, psychological, and economic challenge. [Details...]

16. Kenya Airways - A Case Study in Privatization

The privatization of Kenya Airways was the first-ever privatization of an African airline. The sale of a major state-owned asset is usually a highly charged political event, and the two-year process by which 77% of the shares of Kenya Airways were sold to a broad array of private investors was no exception. From the outset the press and public of Kenya speculated as to how and when the process would fail, and which interests would profit from that failure. Yet the privatization was carried out successfully. [Details...]

17. Mexican Economic Crisis, December 1994

This site explores the Mexican Economic Crisis through reviews and summaries, links to facts and background, and displaying statistical tables. [Details...]

Distribution: Income, Wealth, Other - Non-computerized experiment

18. An Experiment in Income Redistribution and Poverty Measurement

This classroom experiment is designed to get students to question the notion of income equality and poverty measures. I have found it most useful to employ this experiment prior to any coverage of material on poverty and income inequality. [Details...]

19. An Experimental Test of Preferences for the Distribution of Income

his study investigates the question of how much income redistribution individuals desire in society with random differences in individual incomes. The experiments confronted individuals with choices of lotteries determining their own payoffs -- to determine individual risk aversion -- and with choices of lotteries determining payoffs to everyone in the group -- to determine preferences regarding the distribution of income. Comparison of the results reveal whether preferences for income redistribution are based solely on an individual "insurance motive" or involve preferences for a more equal distribution of income within the group than is explained by individual risk aversion. The results show that the subjects were risk averse but they did not display the extreme risk aversion implied by a Rawlsian maximin rule. The experiments produced conflicting evidence regarding the question of whether individuals favor a more equal income distribution than can be explained by individual risk aversion. [Details...]

Distribution: Income, Wealth, Other - Course lecture

20. Governement's Economic Functions

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21. Maket System Participants

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